Awards Before 2006

The ACM Gordon Bell Prize is awarded at the SC conference each year, in recognition of outstanding achievement in high performance computing. Administered by the ACM, the $10,000 prize is intended to track the progress of parallel computing, with particular emphasis on rewarding innovation in applying HPC to applications in science. 

In 2006, Gordon Bell asked the ACM to assume sponsorship of the prize, now known as the ACM Gordon Bell Prize. This page lists the prizes awarded prior to 2006.


YearWinning Entry

2005

For Peak Performance
Frederick H. Streitz, James N. Glosli, Mehul V. Patel, Bor Chan, Robert K. Yates, Bronis R. de Supinski, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; James Sexton and John A. Gunnels, IBM. 
Award Paper: 
100+ TFlop Solidification Simulations on BlueGene/L.
Note: The team achieved up to 107 teraflop/s (trillion operations per second) with a sustained rate of 101.7 teraflop/s over a seven-hour run on the IBM BlueGeneL's 131,072 processors. 
http://www.supercomp.org/sc2004/

2004

For Peak Performance 
Akira Kageyama, Masanori Kameyama, Satoru Fujihara, Masaki Yoshida, Mamoru Hyodo, and Yoshinori Tsuda, JAMSTEC.
Award Paper: A 15.2 TFlops Simulation of Geodynamo on the Earth Simulator.
Note: The team achieved up to 15.2 TFlop/s on 4,096 processors of the Earth Simulator.

For Special Achievements
Hitoshi Sakagami, Himeji Institute of Technology; Hitoshi Murai, Earth Simulator Center, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center; Yoshiki Seo, NEC Corporation; Mitsuo Yokokawa, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute.
Award Paper: 14.9 Tflops Three-dimensional Fluid Simulation for Fusion Science with HPF on the Earth Simulator.
Note: The team achieved up to 14.9 Tflops with the run of a parallelized version of IMPACT-3D, an application written in High Performance Fortran that simulates the instability in an imploding system, such as the ignition of a nuclear device.

Mitsuo Yokokawa, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute; Ken'ichi Itakura, Atsuya Uno, Earth Simulator Center, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center; Takashi Ishihara, Yukio Kaneda, Nagoya University.
Award Paper: 16.4-Tflops Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulence by a Fourier Spectral Method on the Earth Simulator.
Note: New methods for handling the extremely data-intensive calculation of a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform on the Earth Simulator have allowed researchers to overcome a major hurdle for high performance simulations of turbulence. 

Manoj Bhardwaj, Kendall Pierson, Garth Reese, Tim Walsh, David Day, Ken Alvin, James Peery, Sandia National Laboratories; Charbel Farhat, Michel Lesoinne, University of Colorado at Boulder.
Award Paper: Salinas: A Scalable Software for High Performance Structural and Solid Mechanics Simulation.
Note: The structural mechanics community has embraced Salinas, engineering software over 100,000 lines long that has run on a number of advanced systems, including a sustained 1.16 Tflops performance on 3,375 ASCI White processors. 

James C. Phillips, Gengbin Zheng, Sameer Kumar, Laxmikant V. Kale, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Award Paper: NAMD: Biomolecular Simulation on Thousands of Processors.
Note: Researchers achieved unprecedented scaling of NAMD, a code that renders an atom-by-atom blueprint of large biomolecules and biomolecular systems.
http://www.supercomp.org/sc2003/

2003

For Peak Performance 
Dimitri Komatitsch, Chen Ji, and Jeroen Tromp, California Institute of Technology; and Seiji Tsuboi, Institute for Frontier Research on Earth Evolution, JAMSTEC.
Award Paper: A 14.6 Billion Degrees of Freedom, 5 Teraflop/s, 2.5 Terabyte Earthquake Simulation on the Earth Simulator.
Note: The researchers used 1,944 processors of the Earth Simulator to model seismic wave propagation resulting from large earthquakes. 

For Special Achievements
Volkan Akcelik, Jacobo Bielak, Ioannis Epanomeritakis, Antonio Fernandez, Omar Ghattas, Eui Joong Kim, Julio Lopez, David O'Hallaron and Tiankai Tu, Carnegie Mellon University; George Biros, Courant Institute, New York University; and John Urbanic, Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center.
Award Paper: High Resolution Forward and Inverse Earthquake Modeling on Terascale Computers.
Note: The researchers developed earthquake simulation algorithms and tools and used them to carry out simulations of the 1994 Northridge earthquake in the Los Angeles Basin using 100 million grid points. 

For Special Achievements ("lifetime")
Junichiro Makino and Hiroshi Daisaka, University of Tokyo; Eiichiro Kokubo, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; and Toshiyuki Fukushige, University of Tokyo
Award Paper: Performance Evaluation and Tuning of GRAPE-6—Towards 40 'Real' Tflop/s.
Note: The researchers benchmarked GRAPE-6, a sixth-generation special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body problems, and presented the measured performance for a few real applications with a top speed of 35.3 teraflops.
http://www.supercomp.org/sc2002/

2002

For Peak Performance 
Satoru Shingu, Yoshinori Tsuda, Wataru Ohfuchi, Kiyoshi Otsuka, Earth Simulator Center, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center; Hiroshi Takahara, Takashi Hagiwara, Shin-ichi Habata, NEC Corporation; Hiromitsu Fuchigami, Masayuki Yamada, Yuji Sasaki, Kazuo Kobayashi, NEC Informatec Systems; Mitsuo Yokokawa, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Hiroyuki Itoh, National Space Development Agency of Japan.
Award Paper: A 26.58 Tflops Global Atmospheric Simulation with the Spectral Transform Method on the Earth Simulator.
Note: The team achieved up to 26.58 Tflops for the simulation of a complex climate system using an atmospheric circulation model called AFES. 

For Special Award for Language
Hitoshi Sakagami, Himeji Institute of Technology; Hitoshi Murai, Earth Simulator Center, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center; Yoshiki Seo, NEC Corporation; Mitsuo Yokokawa, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute
Award Paper: 14.9 Tflops Three-dimensional Fluid Simulation for Fusion Science with HPF on the Earth Simulator.
Note: The team achieved up to 14.9 Tflops with the run of a parallelized version of IMPACT-3D, an application written in High Performance Fortran that simulates the instability in an imploding system, such as the ignition of a nuclear device.
http://www.sc2001.org/
 
2001
For Peak Performance Toshiyuki Fukushige and Junichiro Makino. Award Paper: Simulation of black holes in a galactic center. Note: The team achieved up to 11.55 Tflop/s. For Price/Performance Joon Hwang, Seung Kim and Chang Lee. Award Paper: Study of impact locating on aircraft structure. Note: The team achieved low-cost cluster cost 24.6 cents/Mflop/s, or less than 25 cents per 1-million floating operations per second.  For Special Achievements Gabrielle Allen, Thomas Dramlitsch, Ian Foster, Nick Karonis, Matei Ripeanu, Edward Seidel and Brian Toonen. Note: The researchers supported efficient execution in the heterogeneous distributed computing environments with Cactus and Globus.
 http://www.sc2000.org/
   
2000
For Peak Performance 
Tetsu Narumi, Ryutaro Susukita, Takahiro Koishi, Kenji Yasuoka, Hideaki Furusawa, Atsushi Kawai and Thoshikazu Ebisuzaki.
Award Paper: MDM: Molecular Dynamic Simulation for NaCl for a Special Purpose Computer.
Note: Competitor for this year's prize for best performance tied; the team achieved 1.34 teraflops.

Junichiro Makino, Toshiyuki Fukushige and Masaki Koga.
Award Paper: Simulation of Black Holes in a Galactic Center on GRAPE-6.
Note: Competitor for this year's prize for best performance tied; the team achieved 1.349 Tflops. 

For Price/Performance
Douglas Aberdeen, Jonathan Baxter and Robert Edwards.
Award Paper: 92 cents/Mflops Ultra-Large Scale Neural Network Training on a PIII Cluster.

Honorable Mention: Thomas Hauser, Timothy I. Mattox, Raymond P. LeBeau, Henry G. Dietz and P. George Huang, University of Kentucky.
Paper: High-Cost CFD on a Low-Cost Cluster.

For Special Achivments
Alan Calder, B.C. Curtis, Jonathan Dursi, Bruce Fryxell, G. Henry, P. MacNeice, Kevin Olson, Paul Ricker, Robert Rosner, Frank Timmes, Henry Tufo, James Truran and Michael Zingale.
Award Paper: High-Performance Reactive Fluid Flow Simulations Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Thousands of Processors.

 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=331532
   
1999
For Peak Performance
A. A. Mirin, R. H. Cohen, B. C. Curtis, W. P. Dannevik, A. M. Dimits, M. A. Duchaineau, D. E. Eliason and D. R. Schikore, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; S. E. Anderson, D. H. Porter and R. Woodward, University of Minnesota; L. J. Shieh and S. W. White, IBM.
Award Paper: Very high resolution simulation of fluid turbulence in compressible flows
Note: The team achieved 1.18 Tflop/s on short run on 5832 CPU’s on ASCI Blue Pacific, 1.04 Tflop/s sustained on one-hour run, 600 Gflop/s on one-week run on 3840 CPU’s.

For Price/Performance 
Atsuchi Kawai, Toshiyuki Fushushige and Junichiro Makino, University of Tokyo.
Award Paper: Astrophysical n-body simulation.
Note: The team achieved up 144 Glops / $ 1 M on custom-built GRAPE-5 32-processor system. 

For Special Achievements
W. K. Anderson, NASA Langley Research Center; W. D. Gropp, D, K. Kaushik, B.F. Smith, Argonne National Laboratory; D. E. Keyes, Old Dominion University, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and ICASE, NASA Langley Research Center.
Paper Award: Unstructured tetrahedral mesh fluid dynamics using PETSc library.
Note: The team achieved up to 156 Gflop/s on 2048 nodes of ASCI Red, using one CPU per node for computation. 

H. M. Tufo, University of Chicago; P. F. Fischer, Argonne National Laboratory. 
Award Paper: Spectral element calculation using a sparse system solver. 
Note: The team achieved up 319 Gflop/s on 2048 nodes of ASCI Red, using two CPU’s per node for computation.

http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=509058&picked=prox
1998
For Peak Performance
First Prize: Balazs Ujfalussy, Xindong Wang, Xiaoguang Zhang, Donald M. C. Nicholson, William A. Shelton and G. Malcolm Stocks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Andrew Canning, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Yang Wang , Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center; Balazs L. Gyorffy, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, UK.
Award Paper: First principles calculation, of a unit cell (512 atoms) model of non-collinear magnetic arrangements for metallic magnets using a variation of the locally self-consistent multiple scattering method.
Note: The team achieved up to 657 Gflops on a 1,024-PE Cray T3E system (600 Mhz). 

Second Prize: Mark P. Sears, Sandia National Laboratories; Ken Stanley, University of California, Berkeley; Greg Henry, Intel
Award Paper: Electronic structures: a silicon bulk periodic unit cell of 3072 atoms, and an aluminum oxide surface unit cell of 2160 atoms, using a complete dense generalized Hermitian eigenvalue-eigenvector calculation.
Note: The team achieved up to 605 Gflops on the ASCI Red machine with 9200 processors (200 Mhz). 

For Price/Performance
First Prize: Dong Chen, MIT; Ping Chen, Norman H. Christ, George Fleming, Chulwoo Jung, Adrian Kahler, Stephen Kasow, Yubing Luo, Catalin Malureanu and Cheng Zhong Sui, Columbia University; Robert G. Edwards and Anthony D. Kennedy, Florida State University; Alan Gara, Robert D. Mawhinney, John Parsons, Pavlos Vranas and Yuri Zhestkov, Columbia University; Sten Hansen, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory; Greg Kilcup, Ohio State University.
Award Paper: 3 lattice quantum chromodynamics computations.
Note: 79.7 Gflops/$1M on a custom system with 2,048 PE’s using a Texas Instruments chip (32-bit floating point ops.). 

Second Prize: Michael S. Warren, Timothy C. Germann, Peter S. Lomdahl and David M. Beazley, Los Alamos National Laboratory; John K. Salmon, Caltech.
Award Paper: Simulation of a shock wave propagating through a structure of 61 million atoms.
Note: 64.9 Gflops/ $ 1 M using a 70 PE system of DEC Alpha’s (533 Mhz.). 

 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=509593&picked=prox&CFID=830722981&CFTOKEN=33097025
   
1997
For Peak Performance
First Prize-Part 1: Michael S. Warren, Los Alamos, National Laboratory; John K. Salmon, Caltech.
Award Paper:  Simulating the motion of 322,000,000 self-gravitating particles.
Note: The team achieved up to 430 Gflops on ASCI Red using 4,096 processors.

For Price/Performance 
Nhan Phan-Thien and Ka Yan Lee, University of Sidney; David Tullock, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Award Paper: Modeling suspensions.
Note:  The team achieved up to 10.8 Gflops/ $ 1 M on 28 DEC Alpha machines.

Michael S. Warren, Los Alamos, National Laboratory; John K. Salmon, Caltech; Donald J. Becker, NASA Goddard; M. Patrick Goda, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thomas Sterling, Caltech; Gregoire S. Winckelmans, Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium).
Award Paper: Two problems: vortex fluid flow modeled with 360,000 particles; galaxy formation following 10,000,000 self-gravitating particles.
Note: The team achieved up to 18 Gflops/ $ 1 M on a cluster of 16 Intel Pentium Pros (200 Mhz.).

 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=369028&picked=prox&CFID=830722981&CFTOKEN=33097025
 
1996
For Peak Performance 
Toshiyuki Iwamiya, Masahiro Yoshida, Yuichi Matsuo, Masahiro Fukuda and Takashi Nakamura, National Aerospace Laboratory (Japan).
Award Paper: Fluid dynamics problem
Note: 111 Gflops on 166 processor Numerical Wind Tunnel 

Honorable Mention:
Toshiyuki Fukushige and Junichiro Makino, University of Tokyo
Paper: Simulation of the motion of 780,000 stars
Note: 333 Gflops using the Grape-4 machine w/ 1,269 processors 

For Price/Performance
Adolfy Hoisie, Cornell University; Stefan Goedecker and Jurg Hutter, Max Planck Institute.
Award Paper: Electronic structures calculations
Note: The team achieved up to 6.3 Gflops/ $ 1 M on an SGI Power Challenge with 6 MIPS R8000 processors.

 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=224170&picked=prox&CFID=830722981&CFTOKEN=33097025
 
1995
For Peak Performance 
Masahiro Yoshida, Masahiro Fukuda and Takashi Nakamura, National Aerospace Laboratory (Japan); Atushi Nakamura, Yamagata University; Shini Hoiki, Hiroshima University.
Award Paper: Quantum chromodynamics simulation
Note: The team achieved up to 179 Gflops on 128 processors of the Numerical Wind Tunnel 

For Price/Performance
Panayotis Skordos, MIT.
Award Paper: Modeling of air flow in flue pipes
Note: The team achieved up to 3.6 Gflops/ $ 1 M on a cluster of 20 HP workstations 

For Special-Purpose Machines
Junichiro Makino and Makoto Taiji, University of Tokyo.
Award Paper: Simulation of the motion of 100,000 stars
Note: The team achieves 112 Gflops using the Grape-4 machine with 288 processors

http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=602770&picked=prox&CFID=830722981&CFTOKEN=33097025

1994
For Peak Performance
David Womble, David Greenberg, Stephen Wheat and Robert Benner, Sandia National Laboratories; Marc Ingber, University of New Mexico; Greg Henry and Satya Gupta, Intel.
Award Paper: Structural mechanics modeling using the boundary element method
Note: The team achieved up to 140 Gflops on a 1,904 node Intel Paragon 

For Price/Performance
Stefan Goedecker, Cornell University; Luciano Colombo, Università di Milano.
Award Paper: Quantum mechanical interactions among 216 silicon atoms
Note: 3 Gflops/$1M on a cluster of eight HP workstations 

Honorable Mention:
H. Miyoshi, Foundation for Promotion of Material Science and Technology of Japan, M. Fukuda, T. Nakamura, M. Tuchiya, M. Yoshida, K. Yamamoto, Y. Yamamoto, S. Ogawa, Y. Matsuo and T. Yamane National Aerospace Laboratory; M. Takamura, M. Ikeda, S. Okada, Y. Sakamoto, T. Kitamura and H. Hatama, Fujitsu Limited; M. Kishimoto, Fujitsu Laboratories Limited.
Paper: Isotropic Turbulence and other CFD codes.
Note: The team achieved up to 120 Gflops on a 140 processor Numerical Wind Tunnel.

http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=169627&picked=prox&CFID=830722981&CFTOKEN=33097025
 
1993
For Peak Performance 
Lyle N. Long and Matt Kamon, Penn. State University; Denny Dahl, Mark Bromley, Robert Lordi, Jack Myczkowski and Richard Shapiro, Thinking Machines.
Award Paper: Modeling of a shock front using the Boltzmann Equation.
Note: The team achieved up to 60 Gflops on a 1,024 processor CM-5.

Honorable Mention:
Peter S. Lomdahl, Pablo Tamayo, Niels Gronbech-Jensen and David M. Beazley, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Paper: Simulating the micro-structure of grain boundaries in solids
Note: The team achieved up to 50 Gflops on a 1,024 processor CM-5.

For Price-Performance
Robert W. Means and Bret Wallach, HNC Inc.; Robert C. Lengel Jr., Tracor Applied Sciences. 
Award Paper: Image analysis using the bispectrum analysis algorithm.
Note: The team achieved up to 6.5 Gflops/ $ 1 M on a custom-built machine called SNAP.
http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=147877&picked=prox&CFID=830722981&CFTOKEN=33097025

1992
For Peak Performance 
Michael Warren, Los Alamos National Laboratory; John K. Salmon, Caltech.
Award Paper: Simulation of 9 million gravitating stars by parallelizing a tree code.
Note: The team achieved up to 5 Gflops on an Intel Touchstone Delta. 

For Price-Performance
Hisao Nakanishi and Vernon Rego, Purdue University; Vaidy Sunderam, Emory University.
Award Paper: Simulation of polymer chains parallelized over a heterogeneous collection of distributed machines.
Note: The team achieved up to 1 Gflops / $ 1 M.

For Speedup
Mark T. Jones and Paul Plassmann, Argonne National Laboratory.
Award Paper: Large, sparse linear system solver that enabled the solution of vortex configurations in superconductors and the modeling of the vibration of piezo-electric crystals
Note: The team achieved up to Gflops on an Intel Touchstone Delta. Speedups between 350 and 500.

http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=110382

1990
For Peak Performance
Honorable Mention:
Mark Bromley, Steve Heller, Cliff Lasser, Bob Lordi, Tim McNerney, Jacek Myczkowski, Irshad Mufti, Guy Steele, Jr. and Alex Vasilevsky, Thinking Machines; Doug McCowan, Mobil Research.
Paper: Seismic data processing.
Note: The team achieved up to 14 Gflops on a CM-2.

For Price-Performance
Al Geist and G. Malcom Stocks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Beniamino Ginatempo, University of Messina, Italy; William Shelton, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory.
Award Paper: Electronic structure of a high-temperature superconductor.
Note: The team achieved up to  800 Mflops/ $ 1 M on a 128-node Intel iPSC/860. 

For Compiler Parallelization
Gary Sabot, Lisa Tennies and Alex Vasilevsky, Thinking Machines; Richard Shapiro, United Technologies.
Award Paper: Grid generation program used to solve partial differential equations.
Note: The team reached up to 1,900 speedup on a 2,048 node CM-2 (2.3 Gflops). 

Honorable Mention: 
Eran Gabber, Amir Averbuch and Amiram Yihudai, Tel Aviv University.
Paper: Parallelizing Pascal Compiler.
Note: The team achieved up to 25x on a 25 node Sequent Symmetry.

http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=62972&picked=prox&CFID=830722981&CFTOKEN=33097025

1989
For Peak Performance
Mark Bromley, Harold Hubschman, Alan Edelman, Bob Lordi, Jacek Myczkowski and Alex Vasilevsky, Thinking Machines; Doug McCowan and Irshad Mufti, Mobil Research.
Award Paper: Seismic data processing.
Note: The team achieved up to 6 Gflops on a CM-2 (also, 500 Mflops/$ 1M). 

Honorable Mention:
Sunil Arvindam, University of Texas, Austin; Vipin Kumar, University of Minnesota; V. Nageshwara Rao, University of Texas, Austin.
Paper: Parallel search for VLSI design.
Note: The team achieved up to 1,100 speedup on a 1,024 processor CM. 

For Price-Performance
Philip Emeagwali, University of Michigan.
Award Paper: Oil reservoir modeling.
Note: The team achieved up to 400 Mflops/ $ 1 M on a CM-2. 

Honorable Mention: 
Daniel Lopresti, Brown University; William Holmes, IDA Supercomputer Research Center
Paper: DNA sequence matching.
Note: The team achieved up to 77k MIPs/$ 1 M.

http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=62972&picked=prox&CFID=830722981&CFTOKEN=33097025

1988
For Peak Performance
Phong Vu, Cray Research; Horst Simon, NASA Ames; Cleve Ashcraft, Yale University; Roger Grimes and John Lewis, Boeing Computer Services; Barry Peyton, Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Award Paper:  Static finite element analysis.
Note: The team achieved up to 1 Gflops on 8-proc. Cray Y-MP, Running time reduced from 15 min. to 30 sec. 

For Price-Performance
Honorable Mention: 
Richard Pelz, Rutgers University.
Paper: Fluid flow problem using the spectral method
Note: The team achieved up to 800 speedup on a 1,024 node N-CUBE 

For Compiler Parallelization

Honorable Mention: 
Marina Chen, Young-il Choo, Jungke Li and Janet Wu, Yale University; Eric De Benedictus, Ansoft Corp.
Paper: Automatic parallelization of a financial application.
Note: The team achieved up to 350 times speedup on a 1,024 N-CUBE and 50 times speedup on a 64 node Intel iPSC-2.

     
1987
For General Purpose Computer 
Robert Benner, John Gustafson, Gary Montry, Sandia National Laboratories.
Award Paper: Beam Stress Analysis, Surface Wave Simulation, Unstable fluid flow model
Note: The team achieved up to 400 – 600 speedup on a 1,024 node N-CUBE 

Honorable Mention: 
Robert Chervin, NCAR.
Paper: Global Ocean Model
Note: The team achieved up to 450 Mflops on a Cray X/MP48 

Honorable Mention: 
Marina Chen, Yale University; Erik Benedictus, Bell Labs; Geoffrey Fox, Caltech; Jingke Li, Yale University; David Walker, Caltech.
Paper: QCD and Circuit Simulation
Note: The team achieved speedups ranging from 39-458 on three applications run on CM hypercubes.

Honorable Mention: 
Stavros Zenios, University of Pennsylvania.
Paper: Nonlinear network optimization.
Note: The team achieved up to 1.5 sec. Execution time on a Connection Machine.